The interlinguistic language is used, mainly, for those with hearing impairment. There are several subcategories in this area and the principal are:
The type of interlinguistic subtitling used mainly in the television industry and, more recently, in streaming websites, such as YouTube and Netflix. The term “Closed” refers to the fact that they are not immediately available when the video or program starts. It is necessary to select this option and activate it to read the subtitles. This type of subtitling is seen as a transcription as accurate as possible of what is being said and, also, includes descriptions of non-visual elements, such as a description of a song or references to doorbells or footsteps of people who do not appear on the screen.
In Real Time
It is a type of subtitling that doesn’t have much representation in Portugal, but in countries like the United States and the United Kingdom is being more and more used, since in those countries the law requires that practically every television program must be accessible for the population with hearing impairment. However, this type of subtitling has not been very popular, due to the time it takes to perform the transcription, encode it and put it back on the screen, subtitles appear a few seconds late in relation to the audio and usually have several errors.
Same Language Subtitling
It is a type of subtitling used primarily at an educational level to help students develop their reading skills with the help of visual media. It has a higher technical and quality level than other types of subtitling, so as not to mislead students.
In the case of the extralinguistic subtitling, the best known and used in Portugal, it is possible to find two subcategories:
In real time
A rare type of subtitling, in which an interpreter and a stenographer work together. The interpreter quickly translates what is being said and the stenographer writes the translation and transmits it in real time. As in the case of interlingual subtitling, this method is prone to errors and low quality.
Most known type of subtitling. The program/film/video is available to the subtitling professional who is responsible for adding the subtitles to it, within a certain period of time. In many cases, the subtitling professional is also responsible for time synchronization, that is, for matching what is being said to the subtitles. However, with the appearance of new types of software, it is increasingly common to have a professional solely responsible for creating a template where the subtitles are already synchronized and another for the translation and quality control to their language.